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It is not a paper, it is homework Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

It's anything but a paper, it is schoolwork - Case Study Example For a spell, until more benefits move in you should work with a skel...

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

It is not a paper, it is homework Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

It's anything but a paper, it is schoolwork - Case Study Example For a spell, until more benefits move in you should work with a skeleton group, maybe only yourselves for the time being to develop business and your better half ought to likely keep up her office administrator position that is as of now in judgment. As per the will, you were left with $300,000 paid to you in $15,000 increases. In spite of the fact that it is proposed for your childrens school, you can choose to utilize it to begin your new business. Also, you were left with $50,000 for unequivocal and quick use. It might take for a little while for you to develop your funds to help extra staff individuals since you don't have a lot of cash to purchase gear and such. You might have the option to develop extra cash, while your significant other is grinding away to purchase and offer vehicles from closeout to flip for a benefit. This will assist you with gaining security while you are moving in the direction of a bigger overhead to have more staff. In a perfect world, you should labor for a year or two and when you feel more steady in your business, your significant other can leave her place of employment at the college and be your office supervisor in your new business. You should mull over the middle pay would be roughly $30,000 to remember as a base pay for every individual relying upon their particular employment. You will likewise need to mull over how encountered your different laborers are the point at which you consider their pay base. These proposals fall in accordance with the first arrangement in light of the fact that now, it is an occupation that Keena can dominate and move into when the business begins to get. She would then be able to begin this is a preliminary procedure in making sense of what necessities are required. This falls in accordance with the all out remuneration plan by offering serious pay base This falls in accordance with the first arrangement and gives the bookkeeper who is instructed a serious base compensation and different motivations to remain with the organization and will likewise assist you with keeping the entirety of your monies all together. This falls in accordance with the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Is Mark Twain a Racist?

Is Mark Twain A bigot? Many accept certain things about Twain's â€Å"Great American novel,† makes it a bigot book, similar to the abuse of the word, â€Å"nigger,† and the given delineation of the dark slave, Jim. In any case, there is a generous measure of proof that this book was not worked out of abhor, however with the expectation that Twain could change the goals of skin shade of the white individuals around him. The above all else question the vast majority ask when they read the novel is, â€Å"was Mark Twain a bigot? There are suspicions that as a result of Twain's utilization of restless language and writing in the perspective of racists, that he was a supremacist himself. A significant part of the article is Twain really expounding on the kind of condition and grown-ups this little fellow has been raised with, and how bigotry against the Chinese is ordinary. For instance, the Chinese are burdened twice as much as the various races to dig for gold. Additional ly, when they are found taking from a mine, they are hung. Notwithstanding, when the equivalent happens to different races, they are just approached to leave the mining camp (Galaxy).In one section, the storyteller shares, â€Å"†¦ [the boy] discovered that in numerous locale of the huge Pacific coast, so solid is the wild, free love of equity in the hearts of the individuals, that at whatever point any mystery and secretive wrongdoing is submitted, they state, â€Å"Let equity be done, however the sky fall,† and go straightway and swing a Chinaman. † (Galaxy) The motivation behind why Twain records these perceptions is to show the city of San Francisco that it isn't the kid who's to blame, in light of the fact that, â€Å"What had the youngster's training been? By what means would it be a good idea for him to assume it wasn't right to stone a Chinaman (Galaxy)? Indeed, in one piece of the article, the kid says, â€Å"†Ah, there goes a Chinaman! God won't love me on the off chance that I don't stone him (Galaxy). † With this article, Twain trusted that he could permit the grown-up of the city to perceive how absurd they have been acting towards the Chinese and it was not the kid who is acting adolescent, yet it is the men whom the little youngster turned upward to. This is a similar situation with the debate encompassing, â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. † In the two stories we see a little fellow who lives in a general public that is bigot against a specific race simply because they were raised that way.An case of this in, â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,† is one of the primary things we get notification from Huck's dad and his sentiments about dark individuals who have done well in the nation. He alludes to an African-American school teacher who wore pleasant garments and was clever. Likewise, since the man was from Ohio, he was additionally permitted to cast a ballot. It's intriguing how Huck' s dad says, â€Å"It was ‘lection day, and I was going to proceed to cast a ballot myself in the event that I warn't too alcoholic to even think about getting there†¦ (37)†.The incongruity in this is the manner by which Huck's dad, a man who is clearly ethically, monetarily, socially, and mentally second rate compared to the teacher he met, accepts he is better than the man on account of their distinction in skin hues. This affirms Huck was brought up in a supremacist domain, which implies that things Huck says or does most likely isn't out of abhor, but since that is how he's been brought up in his home and society. Something unsafe that Twain did to show others his situation on servitude and bigotry was the point at which he elected to help pay for one of the main dark understudy's educational cost at Yale University.In his letter do the Dean of the college disclosing why he needed to do this, he stated, â€Å"We have ground the masculinity out of them, and the disgrace is our own, not theirs, and we should pay for it (Fishkin). † This demonstration and statement shows that Mark Twain felt by and by struck to the heart about subjugation as an awful mix-up towards the dark society and needed to give something back to those influenced. In this manner, with all his negative encounters with slaves and prejudice, for what reason would this man compose a book that conflicts with the goals he so strongly defends?This book ought not be taken a gander at as an assault against African-Americans, however as another way Twain attempted to reimburse the obligation he believed he owed the slaves and their families (Fishkin). At the point when the book initially presents Jim, it appears that the slave is practically eccentric to the point of incompetence. In section two, Jim nods off when searching for Tom and Huck in Mrs. Watson's yard. Tom takes Jim's cap and places it on a branch over his head, and when Jim awakens he tells different slaves a ga thering of witches, â€Å"rode him everywhere throughout the world, and tired him most to death, and his back was all over seat bubbles (14). Two parts later, Jim hauls a hairball out of a bull's stomach and claims an all powerful soul lives inside (26). Numerous individuals discover Jim's notions hostile and bigot since it underlines that slaves had no expectation in having a decent life. Some accept that since the slaves were dealt with so inadequately and had minimal possibility of getting away from their sentence, they made up strange notions as an approach to escape from their savage reality. Most African-American supporters of anning Twain's tale from schools don't figure their kids ought to need to find out about a period in their family ancestry's the place so much torment, enduring and pride was lost. The way that Twain makes Jim an incredibly offbeat character, is deciphered by numerous individuals as a bigot activity (Wolfson). Nonetheless, who's to state that Jim's noti ons are not only an innovative path for him to exploit certain things for his very own benefit? It's conceivable that Jim utilized the witch story from part two since he realized he'd gain notoriety all through the slave world.It even says later that slaves made a trip from far spots to hear Jim's witch story. Similarly as with the hairball, Jim could have recently utilized it to get a brisk â€Å"buck† from Huck, or different clients who needed a few inquiries replied, since Jim imagined the soul wouldn't work except if it was paid. On the off chance that Jim's notions are seen in this light, he ought to be taken a gander at as an extremely smart person, as opposed to a sad slave, and nobody with a similar skin shading as him ought to be insulted (Fishkin). Another huge issue individuals have with the book is its apparently abuse of the word, â€Å"nigger. All through the book, the word is referenced a mind-boggling 200 and multiple times, something that many see as superfl uous, since the word accompanies such a negative, debasing ramifications in this day and age. Notwithstanding, there is a lot of discussion whether the term conveyed the kind of antagonistic implication it has today, however regardless of whether individuals used the name as an affront, there are as yet sensible clarifications with regards to why Mark Twain would utilize this word. Above all else, Twain strived to make this novel as reasonable as possible.If he had not utilized the language of his time or portrayed characters the manner in which they were in his timeframe, at that point nobody would have paid attention to his book. It's conceivable that there were different names that were less hostile that he could have utilized, however doing so would not have been as powerful in uncovering the offensiveness of prejudice as, â€Å"nigger† does. The word strengthened the book's thought that the social orders of the southern United States lived in consistent bigotry. In spite of the fact that it's indistinct whether Shelley Fisher Fishkin bolstered this thought, she says in her book, A Historical Guide to Mark Twain: †¦ â€Å"nigger†] was fundamental to the task of introducing and demonstrating a bigot society, whose ill-conceived racial chain of importance was exemplified in the utilization of that word, since it was key to sensationalizing the disappointment of everybody in that society (highly contrasting) to challenge the authenticity of the norm and of the word that solidified and fortified it, and on the grounds that the phrasing was reasonable to the time and characters. (137) The connection between, Disgraceful Persecution of a Boy, and the current novel should likewise be analyzed.The little youngster who stoned the Chinese man didn't perpetrate the wrongdoing since he detested the Chinese, he did it since that is the thing that he was instructed to do. At the point when Huck alluded to the slaves as, â€Å"niggers,† it's not out of loathe that he utilizes the word, but since he was encouraged that is exactly what you call slaves. Another issue individuals have with this book is the general portrayal of the slave's keenness. In parts of the book, it's difficult to try and comprehend what Jim is attempting to state since he hasn't been instructed. Individuals accept that making Jim sound mentally mediocre compared to each other character in the book is a bigot proceed onward Twain's part.However, when perusing the novel, the peruser should likewise understand that the writer and the storyteller are two unique voices. The creator, Twain, is a grown-up who is very against the possibility of servitude. The storyteller is a little fellow who has been raised by a general public who sees nothing amiss with subjugating dark individuals. Consequently, it isn't Twain voicing his conclusions through the manners of thinking of Huck, yet it is Twain attempting to depict an exact, chronicled perspective from a youthf ul, white kid (Fishkin). Shockingly, this little fellow has been raised with specific predispositions against slaves, and Twain must respect that bias.If he doesn't then the book would be generally wrong. Likewise, one must recollect that individuals living today were most likely not Twain's intended interest group. Twain needed to change issues in his age, and so as to make a story that applied to the peruser of his day, he would need to make the story as reasonable as could reasonably be expected. In conclusion, the most clear contention is that it just wouldn't bode well to make a slave character who was as shrewd as the white individuals. On the off chance that slaves were not permitted any conventional instruction, how practical would it be to expound on a savvy, proficient slave?Finally, toward the finish of the novel, it appears Huck is reconsidering fleeing from his home, simply because, â€Å"Aunt Sally she will embrace me and sivilize me, and I can't stand it (307). † F

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Quitting Smoking and Weight Gain

Quitting Smoking and Weight Gain Addiction Nicotine Use After You Quit Print Why You Gain Weight After You Quit Smoking By Terry Martin facebook twitter Terry Martin quit smoking after 26 years and is now an advocate for those seeking freedom from nicotine addiction. Learn about our editorial policy Terry Martin Updated on January 31, 2020 James Darell / The Image Bank / Getty Images More in Addiction Nicotine Use After You Quit How to Quit Smoking Nicotine Withdrawal Smoking-Related Diseases The Inside of Cigarettes Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Coping and Recovery Most people who quit smoking worry about gaining weight. It seems to go with the territory. While a small gain is normal, excessive weight gain when you quit smoking can create new health problems and erode your determination to stay off cigarettes. Lets take a look at what you can do to keep your weight under control as you go through the process of recovery from nicotine addiction. Why People Gain Weight When They Quit Smoking increases metabolism slightly: Smoking burns up to 200 calories a day in a heavy smoker.Because smoking burns calories, metabolism is boosted (increased) slightly.Nicotine is an appetite suppressant. When you quit smoking, a gain of between 5 and 10 pounds during the first few months of cessation is normal. If your eating habits have remained the same as they were when you smoked, the weight should come back off within a few months. Add some exercise to your daily regimen like a brisk 30-minute walk, and youll help speed the weight loss along or perhaps avoid it altogether. Why You Want to Eat More Smoking cessation throws our bodies into shock initially. Increased appetite is a side effect of quitting tobacco for most people. Cigarettes as an appetite suppressant: Smokers often avoid between-meal snacking by lighting up. Nicotine is a stimulant, and may also interfere with the release of the hormone insulin. Insulin controls glucose levels in the blood. When this function is blocked, a person will become slightly hyperglycemic, and as a result, the body and brain may slow down the hormones and other signals that trigger feelings of hunger.Food as a replacement for smoking: Early on in a persons quit, the urge to smoke is frequent and uncomfortable. Most of us feel the loss of the hand-to-mouth action of smoking acutely, and food often seems like a reasonable replacement. This can lead to overeating and weight gain though, so its better to find a healthier substitute for smoking.Dopamine and the urge to snack: Nicotine and food share a common chemical reaction in our brains: the release of dopamine. Dopamine is called the feel good hormone because it creates a sense of well-being. When nicotine is no longe r in the picture, many of us to turn to food for that boost. The emotional comfort food gives us is a result of this chemical reaction in the brain. Exercise also releases dopamine, so consider using it as a way of improving your mood and minimizing cravings. It will have the added benefit of helping you to speed up a sluggish metabolism and avoid weight gain as well; a win every way you look at it. Studies have shown that women are at greater risk than men for returning to smoking as a way to avoid weight gain. Understanding what happens to our bodies when we quit smoking and what we can do to alleviate discomfort in constructive ways will help us stay on track and keep weight gain at a minimum. There are a number of choices you can make to minimize weight gain. Exercise As mentioned above, exercise releases dopamine and is a great way to stave off cravings to smoke. It can also help you keep your weight stable. Shoot for at least a half hour of exercise, 5 days a week. It doesnt have to be a high-intensity aerobic workout; a brisk 30-minute walk around your neighborhood will work wonders for your body, mind, and soul. Healthy Snacks Put snacks together ahead of time so that when the munchies hit, youve got good food choices within easy reach: Vegetable sticks: Celery, carrotsLean meat and a small amount of cheeseSeeds and nuts: Choose those that you have to remove the shell.  Gives your hands something to do and helps you eat less.94% fat-free popcornTrail mixWater: Drink lots of itHard candies to suck onFresh fruitLow-fat yogurtHerbal teasHot cocoa made with nonfat milkFrozen grapesFat-free fudgecicles If youre concerned about weight gain, do yourself a favor and remove tempting, high-fat foods from your home. If you have a strong craving for a decadent dessert, its better to go out to a restaurant and indulge in a single serving, rather than have an entire cake sitting on the counter calling your name every time you walk through the kitchen. Avoid Alcohol Not only is alcohol high in calories, but it is also often an intense trigger to smoke. Additionally, alcohol tends to relax our inhibitions, and for an ex-smoker, that can spell trouble. Avoid the empty calories in alcohol, but more importantly, dont put yourself at risk of relapse by drinking early in your quit program. One Challenge at a Time People who quit smoking often decide its time to clean their lives up in other areas as well. Thats great, but be careful. If you try to do too many self-improvement projects at once, you run the risk of failing at all of them. Keep these points in mind: Be good to yourself. Quitting tobacco is a huge accomplishment, and you should reward yourself for your progress often. Dont underestimate the magnitude of what you are doing.Be patient. Quitting smoking is a process that takes time. It doesnt happen overnight, but in comparison to the number of years most of us smoked, recovery from nicotine addiction is short. Give yourself the time you need to heal.Accept yourself. You are a wonderful person just as you are right now. If you gain a few pounds while going through the process of quitting tobacco, so be it. The benefits will affect your life as well as those who love you in more positive ways than you can imagine. You can quit smoking without gaining a lot of weight. Dont let the fear of weight gain keep you chained to an addiction that will kill you, given the chance. Weight can be lost, lungs cannot.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Battle of Alam Halfa in North Africa During WW II

The Battle of Alam Halfa was fought from August 30 to September 5, 1942, during World War IIs Western Desert Campaign. Armies Commanders Allies Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery4 divisions, XIII Corps, Eighth Army Axis Field Marshal Erwin Rommel6 divisions, Panzer Armee Afrika Background Leading to the Battle With the conclusion of the First Battle of El Alamein in July 1942, both British and Axis forces in North Africa paused to rest and refit. On the British side, Prime Minister Winston Churchill travelled to Cairo and relieved Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command General Claude Auchinleck and replacing him with General Sir Harold Alexander. Command of the British Eight Army at El Alamein ultimately was given to Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery. Assessing the situation at El Alamein, Montgomery found that the front was constricted to a narrow line running from the coast to the impassable Qattara Depression. Montgomerys Plan To defend this line, three infantry divisions from XXX Corps were positioned on ridges running from the coast south to Ruweisat Ridge. To the south of the ridge, the 2nd New Zealand Division was similarly fortified along a line ending at Alam Nayil. In each case, the infantry was protected by extensive minefields and artillery support. The final twelve miles from Alam Nayil to the depression was featureless and difficult to defend. For this area, Montgomery ordered that minefields and wire be laid, with the 7th Motor Brigade Group and 4th Light Armoured Brigade of the 7th Armoured Division in position behind. When attacked, these two brigades were to inflict maximum casualties before falling back. Montgomery established his main defensive line along the ridges running east from Alam Nayil, most notably Alam Halfa Ridge. It was here that he positioned the bulk of his medium and heavy armor along with anti-tank guns and artillery. It was Montgomerys intention to entice Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to attack through this southern corridor and then defeat him in a defensive battle. As British forces assumed their positions, they were augmented by the arrival of reinforcements and new equipment as convoys reached Egypt. Rommels Advance Across the sands, Rommels situation was growing desperate as his supply situation worsened. While he advance across the desert had seen him win stunning victories over the British, it had badly extended his supply lines. Requesting 6,000 tons of fuel and 2,500 tons of ammunition from Italy for his planned offensive, Allied forces succeeded in sinking over half of the ships dispatched across the Mediterranean. As a result, only 1,500 tons of fuel reached Rommel by the end of August. Aware of Montgomerys growing strength, Rommel felt compelled to attack with the hope of winning a quick victory. Constrained by the terrain, Rommel planned to push the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions, along with the 90th Light Infantry through the southern sector, while the bulk of his other forces demonstrated against the British front to the north. Once through the minefields, his men would push east before turning north to sever Montgomerys supply lines. Moving forward on the night of August 30, Rommels attack quickly encountered difficulty. Spotted by the Royal Air Force, British aircraft began attacking the advancing Germans as well as directing artillery fire on their line of advance. The Germans Held Reaching the minefields, the Germans found them to be much more extensive than anticipated. Slowly working through them, they came under intense fire from the 7th Armoured Division and British aircraft which exacted a high toll, including wounding General Walther Nehring, commander of the Afrika Korps. Despite these difficulties, the Germans were able to clear the minefields by noon the next day and began pressing east. Eager to make up lost time and under constant harassing attacks from 7th Armoured, Rommel ordered his troops to turn north earlier than planned. This maneuver directed the assault against the 22nd Armoured Brigades positions on Alam Halfa Ridge. Moving north, the Germans were met with intense fire from the British and were halted. A flank attack against the British left was stopped by heavy fire from anti-tank guns. Stymied and short on fuel, General Gustav von Vaerst, now leading the Afrika Korps, pulled back for the night. Attacked through the night by British aircraft, German operations on September 1 were limited as 15th Panzer had a dawn attack checked by the 8th Armoured Brigade and Rommel began moving Italian troops into the southern front. Under constant air attack during the night and into the morning hours of September 2, Rommel realized that the offensive had failed and decided to withdraw west. His situation was made more desperate when a column of British armored cars badly mauled one of his supply convoys near Qaret el Himeimat. Realizing his adversarys intentions, Montgomery began formulating plans for counterattacks with the 7th Armoured and 2nd New Zealand. In both cases, he emphasized that neither division should incur losses that would preclude them from taking part in a future offensive. While a major push from 7th Armoured never developed, the New Zealanders attacked south at 10:30 PM on September 3. While the veteran 5th New Zealand Brigade had success against the defending Italians, an assault by the green 132nd Brigade collapsed due to confusion and fierce enemy resistance. Not believing a further attack would succeed, Montgomery cancelled further offensive operations the next day. As a result, the German and Italian troops were able to retreat back to their lines, though under frequent air attack. The Battles Aftermath The victory at Alam Halfa cost Montgomery 1,750 killed, wounded, and missing as well as 68 tanks and 67 aircraft. Axis losses totaled around 2,900 killed, wounded, and missing along with 49 tanks, 36 aircraft, 60 guns, and 400 transport vehicles. Often overshadowed by the First and Second Battles of El Alamein, Alam Halfa represented the last significant offensive launched by Rommel in North Africa. Far from his bases and with his supply lines crumbling, Rommel was forced to move to the defensive as British strength in Egypt grew. In the wake of the battle, Montgomery was criticized for not pressing harder to cut off and destroy the Afrika Korps when it was isolated on his southern flank. He responded by stating that Eighth Army was still in the process of reforming and lacked the logistical network to support the exploitation of such a victory. Also, he was adamant that he wished to preserve British strength for a planned offensive rather than risk it in counterattacks against Rommels defenses. Having shown restraint at Alam Halfa, Montgomery moved to the attack in October when he opened the Second Battle of El Alamein. Sources Defensive Military Structures in Action: Historical ExamplesBBC: Peoples War - Battle of Alam Halfa

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Analysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral, A Man And His...

Kristoffer LaMantain Sandiford ENG 1-B E-6 10 December 2015 Spouses for Humanity Humanity’s potential to develop interpersonal relationships is fundamental to their growth and can be detrimental to society if not maintained. Focusing on a relationship between two spouses; it is traditionally presumed to be mutually beneficial. It is this mutual benefit where a healthy relationship can contribute to an individual’s attainment of goals, moral construction, and perception of society. â€Å"Interpersonal relationships have traditionally been regarded as one of the major determinants of health and well-being† (Paat). But what constitutes a healthy relationship? In Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† a man and his wife on the surface have a rocky relationship that seems to be teetering on the husband’s impartiality to his wife and the wife’s resentment towards her husband’s impartiality. However, Brewer-Davis states that, â€Å"loving someone sometimes seems to appropriately override impartiali ty†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The ties that this couple has established and the healthy communication of their moral standing is the key to their growth. Although the husband is considered sort of a ‘bad boy’ and the wife is characterized as a sweet, caring individual; it is this difference in personalities that brings them together as the husband receives emotional stimulation that he could not otherwise get by himself. Consequently, the wife receives a reality check from her husband’s partiality and rational demeanor. PaatShow MoreRelatedMinimalism by Raymond Carver Essay3013 Words   |  13 PagesCriticism Minimalism by Raymond Carver English 210 P. Fishman Research Paper Literary Criticism on Minimalism by Raymond Carver Raymond Carver was a master of the short story during the mid nineteenth century due to his unique minimalistic style. Carver has his own artistic signature when it comes to writing, he tells his stories using the leastRead MoreDo We See The Same Way That We Think?1312 Words   |  6 Pagesbegin, â€Å"Cathedral† by Raymond Carver is a true example of how literature not only shares the outer view of humans, but also what is going on in their minds. This story moves along with its powerful theme and variety of characters within it. You cannot simply look at the surface of something to truly understand the full details of it because what you see or think is on the outside, may not be what is on the inside. This is considered to be the main theme of â€Å"Cathedral†. The narrator’s wife invites

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia Free Essays

Numerous studies have been contacted on the Rabbit in Australia (Parer,I.(1977),Twigg, E.L. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Lowe, J.T., Wheeler, G.A., Gray, S.G., Martin, R.G. Barker,W.(1998), Wheeler,H.S. King,R.D. (1985),   Rolls,E.C. (1969)), covering issues such as it’s population ecology, dispersal, survival and the efficiencies of the various control methods that have been used up to date. In the early stages of the rabbit plague, fences were erected to prevent dispersal or slow the rate of dispersal, but these proved to costly and ineffective. The fifties saw the introduction of the biological control agent, myxoma virus. This had great success initially but unfortunately the government failed to capitalize on the success, with continued control. The Rabbit Calcivirus Disease (RCD) was introduced (albeit accidentally) in the early 1990’s. A highly infectious disease, spread by direct contact or by vectors (mosquito) with a mortality rate between 50-90%. However young kittens are not as susceptible as older rabbits. (Linton 2001) and when the female goes on to breed they are able to pass on maternal antibodies to their young. In determining whether or not the complete eradication of the rabbit in Australia is a feasible concept, one needs to study or be aware of certain aspects of their ecology. Such as their breeding and dispersal patterns and from this weaknesses might become evident, which would then aide in the eradication of the rabbit. Read also History Quizzes The Rabbit made its’ first appearance is the Eocene in Asia and North America, arriving in Europe during the Miocene period. Two sub species from Southern France and Spain were identified O.cuniculus cuniculus and O.cunniculus buxteyi. The first named sub species from France was frequently released on islands as a food source for sailors that might become shipwrecked. The image of the rabbit had some bearing on its’ dispersal and protection. In that it provided the people with their main source of food during times of hardship or depression and therefore they attained a rather prestigious image. This in turn further aided their rapid dispersal. The arrival of the 1st fleet in 1788 saw the introduction of the rabbit in Australia. However, it was Tasmania that had the first recording of a feral rabbit population in 1827. Mainland Australia remained rabbit free until 1859, when a grazier and sportsman arranged for the shipment of twenty-four rabbits from England. Thomas Austin released the rabbits on his property in Geelong, Victoria around Christmas of 1859. Ten years from this initial release, 14,253 rabbits were shot for sport on this same property. This illustrates the high fertility and dispersal rates of the rabbit. By the year 1910, two-thirds of Australia was inhabited by the rabbit (Parer (1982) for Ratcliffe 1959). With a dispersal rate of approximately 70km/yr (Parer 1982), the rabbit went to colonise Queensland within 30 years and reaching Western Australia within 40 years of its release. Stodart and Parer suggest that it has the fastest dispersal rate of any colonising mammal in the world. The introduction of the rabbit had an enormous impact on the native wildlife, displacing many small-medium sized native mammals; the greater Bilby, Bettongia Leseur are but a few. The displaced was largely due to competition for food and the altering of their ecosystems. With the enormity of their population, widespread impacts were inevitable: depletion of native vegetation, competition for space, resulting warrens and burrows of native animals being overtaken by the rabbit. Predators such as foxes increased in numbers as a direct result of the high number of rabbits to prey on. Unfortunately when the rabbit numbers declined due to drought, etc the foxes would turn on the small native mammals. The economic implications were also enormous; Sloane etal (1988) puts the impact at approximately $90 million in lost production and a further $20 million on the control. The European rabbit has an extremely high fertility rate together with a relatively short gestation period of approximately 30 days. They are able to fall pregnant immediately after giving birth. Their litter size fluctuates between four to seven kittens. Although small at birth, weighing about thirty-five grams they are able to increase their birth weight by a staggering 600% by the time they are ready to leave the warren, generally at about 21 days of age. They will be capable of breeding when they reach an age of 3-4 months (Parer 1977). The prolificacy of their breeding season is regulated by rainfall and hence the availability of food. When the rainfall is in short supply or during the occurrence of a drought, the breeding season will be short, litter sizes will be smaller and fewer females will breed (Twigg et al 1998). The warren provides the newly born and the young kittens with shelter from the harsh elements and protection from predators. This is especially so in the open, cleared grazing land where there is little, if any, shelter or protection provided by natural vegetation (Parer 1997). Linton (2001) supports this by stating that the rabbit lowers it chances of survival outside the warren and that the warren is the centre of the rabbit’s life. This therefore seems to suggest that the destruction of the warren would facilitate in the long term eradication of the rabbit. â€Å"Rabbit control is the (artificial) imposition of mortality. It is generally assumed that, under normal circumstances, 100% mortality as a result of control is unlikely† (Wheeler and King 1985:224). They continue by suggesting that since complete eradication is not possible, one needs to ascertain when the best time of impact would be. The best time would seem to be when the rabbit is in its’ most vulnerable state, i.e. when it is a kitten. Wheeler and King (1985) argue that by targeting the young kittens, resources are increased for those that survive and for the litters born later in that year. They suggest that targeting the adults just at the commencement of their breeding season would impact more on the actual population size. That is, there would be a reduction in the total number of kittens or litters born during that breeding season. Linton (2001) argues that the greatest influence on the control of the rabbit is the actual rabbit habitat itself. That is a habitat which has a high rabbit population will always be highly susceptible to re-establishment. Linton (2001) continues by suggesting that a control program which concentrates on those components of the habitat that make it susceptible to rabbit infestation, would then greatly reduce re-establishment of the rabbit. Twigg etal (1998) suggest that the rabbit problem needs to be addressed on a regional basis, not as an Australian wide problem, even though it is. Parer (1982) supports this but, suggests that in it infancy a control program aimed at isolated populations would be more beneficial. Parer puts this down to the reduced invasion by immigrants due to its location and therefore the reduced population would be kept at low densities by resident fa cultative predators. It would seem that the complete eradication of the rabbit in Australia is insurmountable due to the enormity of our country and its’ varied landscape. However with a management plan the targets individual regions, a reduction in the population density of the rabbit is achievable. This would involve a combination of control methods which would incorporate environmental, biological, economic factors (Linton 2001, Twigg etal 1998.Parer 1982). The biological controls still have an effect on the rabbit, so this together with mechanical controls and timing would beneficial to the overall problem. Mechanical controls such as warren ripping is an important element in the long term plan and the commencement of this should be when the rabbit population is low (Linton 2001). Therefore the likelihood of re-colonisation is reduced. Follow up procedures of fumigation; poisoning might be necessary to ensure that the population has been eradicated from within that area. The timing of these methods seems to play an intricate role in the rabbits’ demise. Perhaps with time and proper management the eradication of the rabbit is feasible, but not without the financial support and backing of both regional and commonwealth governments. The key seems to be to start on a small scale and work up to larger regional control or eradication. How to cite Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Mayan Essay Example For Students

Mayan Essay Architecture and Burials in the Maya and Aztec Plundering and carnage were the overlying results of the Spanish conquest of MesoAmerica beginning in 1519. The ensuing years brought many new visitors, mostly laymen or officials in search of wealth, though the Christianity toting priest was ever present. Occasionally a man from any of these classes, though mainly priests would be so in awe of the civilization they were single handedly massacring that they began to observe and document things such as everyday life, religious rituals, economic goings on, and architecture, which was the biggest achievement in the eyes of the Spaniards. That is how the accounts of Friar Diego de Landa, a priest, were created, giving us rare first per-son historical accounts of the conquest and the people it effected. To archaeologists monumental architecture is more important than an inscribed stelae listing names and dates. There is so much more to learn from a building than a slab of stone usually seethi ng with propaganda. In most societies they are what remains after conquest, usually for their beauty or ability to withstand the elements. Landa was amazed by what he found. There are in Yucatan many edifices of great beauty, this be-ing the most outstanding of all things discovered in the Indies; they are all build of stone finely ornamented†¦ (Landa, 8). If it were a commoners domestic dwelling we would learn through the study of remaining artifacts and middens what objects were used on a daily basis and also the standard of living, helping us to construct an accurate view of the long neglected commoner. According to Landa steepled roofs covered with thatch or palm leaves protected the habitat from rain. Homes were often divided into two sections, a living section, customarily whitewashed, and a domestic area where food was prepared and inhabitants slept (Landa, 32). In Aztec societies commoners often lived in calpolli, a residential area segregated by occupation, usually sur rounded by walls for protection (Smith, 145). If it were a domestic dwelling for a noble it would be larger than a com-moners dwelling, and usually consisted of more than one large structures occasionally located on a platform near the center of the town. The high status is obvious by the in-clusion of more elaborate and ornamental objects and frequently frescos adorned the walls. Monumental Architecture of public and private buildings are one of the best indi-cators of the size and importance of a site. The size of the structure has direct corrolation to the power held by the leader, in his ability to conduct peasants to construct the build-ing. Temples and plazas were the main objects of monumental construction and often rival the pyramids of Egypt in quality and size. Temples were often pyramid like struc-tures that were built, facing east, over the cremated remains of a priest or ruler. With each acceding ruler the temple was made larger by building over the previous, thus the l ayering effect so often uncovered. Different styles of decoration and construction were used by each culture during different periods. In contrast to earlier Mesoamerican pyramids with a single temple built on top and a single stairway up the side, the pyramids built by the Early Aztec peoples had twin temples and double stairways (Smith, 43). There are several complexes of Esperanza architecture at Kaminaljuyu†¦these are stepped temple platforms with the typical Teotihuacan talud-tablero motif†¦ (Coe, 84). Then in less than three hundred years there was a completely different style of architec-ture in the area, Characteristic of Puuk buildings are facings of very thin squares of limestone veneer over the cement-and-rubble core; boot-shaped vault stones†¦and the exuberant use of stone mosaics on upper facades, emphasizing the usual monster-masks with long, hook-shaped snouts, as well as frets and lattice-like designs of criss-crossed elements (Coe, 157). Mesoamerican architecture has withstood the test of time, many of the structures not destroyed during the conquest still stand today, whereas numerous Spanish buildings do not. In pre-modern history, throughout the world burials have been customarily simi-lar, irregardless the distance. Whether this is coincidence or not will be determined at some point in the future, but for now I am of the opinion that since many cultures wor-shipped similar gods many of their customs will be comparable. For example many cul-tures, including the Aztecs and the Maya buried bodies in the fetal position facing east. More often than not various foods and goods were placed in the grave to accompany the deceased in the next life. Burials usually followed some ritual and occurred near the home, which would be abandoned soon after (Landa, 57). If they were not cremated the body would be wrapped in a shroud and buried in the temple (Coe, 76). It is believed that many Aztec adults, though commoners, were cremated, mainl y because of the lack of adult burials found (Smith, 142). Nobles and priests were cremated and placed in an urn or hollow statue and if the person was of great importance they would be buried in a tem-ple or have a temple erected over their burial site. Foreign lords of the Esperanza phase chose the temple platforms themselves as their final resting-places. As with the earlier Miraflores people, each platform was actually built to enclose the rulers tomb, a log-roofed chamber usually placed beneath the frontal staircase, successive burials and their platforms being placed over older ones†¦Surrounding him were rich funerary vessels, undoubtedly containing food and drink for his own use†¦ (Coe, 84-85). Unlike the Maya who believed that everyone went to Xibalba, the cold Maya un-derworld, the Aztec believed there were several underworlds depending on the method of death. Soldiers who died in battle and sacrificial victims went to an eastern solar realm†¦women who died i n childbirth went to a western solar realm†¦people who died by drowning or other causes related to the rain god went to the earthly paradise of Tlalo-can. Most people, however went to one of the nine levels of Mictlan, the underground realm of death (Smith, 141-142). Funerals of Aztec nobles were often attended by peo-ple of importance throughout the empire, usually bringing jewels or other gifts such as slaves. Although a Spaniard, Landa was one of the most important historians of his time in regards to Mesoamerica. His accounts may be less than scientific and a bit biased to-wards his own culture but at the same time show an awe of the primitive societies they were attempting to civilize in the name of Christ. He was ignorant and therefore in my mind is not to be blamed much, at least he tried to preserve information on their culture, though he did burn most manuscripts written by the natives. Bibliography:Bibliography Works Cited Landa, Diego de. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. Dover Publications Inc. New York City, New York, 1978. Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford, UK, 1996. Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Thames and Hudson Ltd. London, 1999. Works Cited Landa, Diego de. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. Dover Publications Inc. New York City, New York, 1978. Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford, UK, 1996. Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 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