Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Battle of Alam Halfa in North Africa During WW II

The Battle of Alam Halfa was fought from August 30 to September 5, 1942, during World War IIs Western Desert Campaign. Armies Commanders Allies Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery4 divisions, XIII Corps, Eighth Army Axis Field Marshal Erwin Rommel6 divisions, Panzer Armee Afrika Background Leading to the Battle With the conclusion of the First Battle of El Alamein in July 1942, both British and Axis forces in North Africa paused to rest and refit. On the British side, Prime Minister Winston Churchill travelled to Cairo and relieved Commander-in-Chief Middle East Command General Claude Auchinleck and replacing him with General Sir Harold Alexander. Command of the British Eight Army at El Alamein ultimately was given to Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery. Assessing the situation at El Alamein, Montgomery found that the front was constricted to a narrow line running from the coast to the impassable Qattara Depression. Montgomerys Plan To defend this line, three infantry divisions from XXX Corps were positioned on ridges running from the coast south to Ruweisat Ridge. To the south of the ridge, the 2nd New Zealand Division was similarly fortified along a line ending at Alam Nayil. In each case, the infantry was protected by extensive minefields and artillery support. The final twelve miles from Alam Nayil to the depression was featureless and difficult to defend. For this area, Montgomery ordered that minefields and wire be laid, with the 7th Motor Brigade Group and 4th Light Armoured Brigade of the 7th Armoured Division in position behind. When attacked, these two brigades were to inflict maximum casualties before falling back. Montgomery established his main defensive line along the ridges running east from Alam Nayil, most notably Alam Halfa Ridge. It was here that he positioned the bulk of his medium and heavy armor along with anti-tank guns and artillery. It was Montgomerys intention to entice Field Marshal Erwin Rommel to attack through this southern corridor and then defeat him in a defensive battle. As British forces assumed their positions, they were augmented by the arrival of reinforcements and new equipment as convoys reached Egypt. Rommels Advance Across the sands, Rommels situation was growing desperate as his supply situation worsened. While he advance across the desert had seen him win stunning victories over the British, it had badly extended his supply lines. Requesting 6,000 tons of fuel and 2,500 tons of ammunition from Italy for his planned offensive, Allied forces succeeded in sinking over half of the ships dispatched across the Mediterranean. As a result, only 1,500 tons of fuel reached Rommel by the end of August. Aware of Montgomerys growing strength, Rommel felt compelled to attack with the hope of winning a quick victory. Constrained by the terrain, Rommel planned to push the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions, along with the 90th Light Infantry through the southern sector, while the bulk of his other forces demonstrated against the British front to the north. Once through the minefields, his men would push east before turning north to sever Montgomerys supply lines. Moving forward on the night of August 30, Rommels attack quickly encountered difficulty. Spotted by the Royal Air Force, British aircraft began attacking the advancing Germans as well as directing artillery fire on their line of advance. The Germans Held Reaching the minefields, the Germans found them to be much more extensive than anticipated. Slowly working through them, they came under intense fire from the 7th Armoured Division and British aircraft which exacted a high toll, including wounding General Walther Nehring, commander of the Afrika Korps. Despite these difficulties, the Germans were able to clear the minefields by noon the next day and began pressing east. Eager to make up lost time and under constant harassing attacks from 7th Armoured, Rommel ordered his troops to turn north earlier than planned. This maneuver directed the assault against the 22nd Armoured Brigades positions on Alam Halfa Ridge. Moving north, the Germans were met with intense fire from the British and were halted. A flank attack against the British left was stopped by heavy fire from anti-tank guns. Stymied and short on fuel, General Gustav von Vaerst, now leading the Afrika Korps, pulled back for the night. Attacked through the night by British aircraft, German operations on September 1 were limited as 15th Panzer had a dawn attack checked by the 8th Armoured Brigade and Rommel began moving Italian troops into the southern front. Under constant air attack during the night and into the morning hours of September 2, Rommel realized that the offensive had failed and decided to withdraw west. His situation was made more desperate when a column of British armored cars badly mauled one of his supply convoys near Qaret el Himeimat. Realizing his adversarys intentions, Montgomery began formulating plans for counterattacks with the 7th Armoured and 2nd New Zealand. In both cases, he emphasized that neither division should incur losses that would preclude them from taking part in a future offensive. While a major push from 7th Armoured never developed, the New Zealanders attacked south at 10:30 PM on September 3. While the veteran 5th New Zealand Brigade had success against the defending Italians, an assault by the green 132nd Brigade collapsed due to confusion and fierce enemy resistance. Not believing a further attack would succeed, Montgomery cancelled further offensive operations the next day. As a result, the German and Italian troops were able to retreat back to their lines, though under frequent air attack. The Battles Aftermath The victory at Alam Halfa cost Montgomery 1,750 killed, wounded, and missing as well as 68 tanks and 67 aircraft. Axis losses totaled around 2,900 killed, wounded, and missing along with 49 tanks, 36 aircraft, 60 guns, and 400 transport vehicles. Often overshadowed by the First and Second Battles of El Alamein, Alam Halfa represented the last significant offensive launched by Rommel in North Africa. Far from his bases and with his supply lines crumbling, Rommel was forced to move to the defensive as British strength in Egypt grew. In the wake of the battle, Montgomery was criticized for not pressing harder to cut off and destroy the Afrika Korps when it was isolated on his southern flank. He responded by stating that Eighth Army was still in the process of reforming and lacked the logistical network to support the exploitation of such a victory. Also, he was adamant that he wished to preserve British strength for a planned offensive rather than risk it in counterattacks against Rommels defenses. Having shown restraint at Alam Halfa, Montgomery moved to the attack in October when he opened the Second Battle of El Alamein. Sources Defensive Military Structures in Action: Historical ExamplesBBC: Peoples War - Battle of Alam Halfa

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Analysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral, A Man And His...

Kristoffer LaMantain Sandiford ENG 1-B E-6 10 December 2015 Spouses for Humanity Humanity’s potential to develop interpersonal relationships is fundamental to their growth and can be detrimental to society if not maintained. Focusing on a relationship between two spouses; it is traditionally presumed to be mutually beneficial. It is this mutual benefit where a healthy relationship can contribute to an individual’s attainment of goals, moral construction, and perception of society. â€Å"Interpersonal relationships have traditionally been regarded as one of the major determinants of health and well-being† (Paat). But what constitutes a healthy relationship? In Raymond Carver’s â€Å"Cathedral† a man and his wife on the surface have a rocky relationship that seems to be teetering on the husband’s impartiality to his wife and the wife’s resentment towards her husband’s impartiality. However, Brewer-Davis states that, â€Å"loving someone sometimes seems to appropriately override impartiali ty†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The ties that this couple has established and the healthy communication of their moral standing is the key to their growth. Although the husband is considered sort of a ‘bad boy’ and the wife is characterized as a sweet, caring individual; it is this difference in personalities that brings them together as the husband receives emotional stimulation that he could not otherwise get by himself. Consequently, the wife receives a reality check from her husband’s partiality and rational demeanor. PaatShow MoreRelatedMinimalism by Raymond Carver Essay3013 Words   |  13 PagesCriticism Minimalism by Raymond Carver English 210 P. Fishman Research Paper Literary Criticism on Minimalism by Raymond Carver Raymond Carver was a master of the short story during the mid nineteenth century due to his unique minimalistic style. Carver has his own artistic signature when it comes to writing, he tells his stories using the leastRead MoreDo We See The Same Way That We Think?1312 Words   |  6 Pagesbegin, â€Å"Cathedral† by Raymond Carver is a true example of how literature not only shares the outer view of humans, but also what is going on in their minds. This story moves along with its powerful theme and variety of characters within it. You cannot simply look at the surface of something to truly understand the full details of it because what you see or think is on the outside, may not be what is on the inside. This is considered to be the main theme of â€Å"Cathedral†. The narrator’s wife invites

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia Free Essays

Numerous studies have been contacted on the Rabbit in Australia (Parer,I.(1977),Twigg, E.L. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Lowe, J.T., Wheeler, G.A., Gray, S.G., Martin, R.G. Barker,W.(1998), Wheeler,H.S. King,R.D. (1985),   Rolls,E.C. (1969)), covering issues such as it’s population ecology, dispersal, survival and the efficiencies of the various control methods that have been used up to date. In the early stages of the rabbit plague, fences were erected to prevent dispersal or slow the rate of dispersal, but these proved to costly and ineffective. The fifties saw the introduction of the biological control agent, myxoma virus. This had great success initially but unfortunately the government failed to capitalize on the success, with continued control. The Rabbit Calcivirus Disease (RCD) was introduced (albeit accidentally) in the early 1990’s. A highly infectious disease, spread by direct contact or by vectors (mosquito) with a mortality rate between 50-90%. However young kittens are not as susceptible as older rabbits. (Linton 2001) and when the female goes on to breed they are able to pass on maternal antibodies to their young. In determining whether or not the complete eradication of the rabbit in Australia is a feasible concept, one needs to study or be aware of certain aspects of their ecology. Such as their breeding and dispersal patterns and from this weaknesses might become evident, which would then aide in the eradication of the rabbit. Read also History Quizzes The Rabbit made its’ first appearance is the Eocene in Asia and North America, arriving in Europe during the Miocene period. Two sub species from Southern France and Spain were identified O.cuniculus cuniculus and O.cunniculus buxteyi. The first named sub species from France was frequently released on islands as a food source for sailors that might become shipwrecked. The image of the rabbit had some bearing on its’ dispersal and protection. In that it provided the people with their main source of food during times of hardship or depression and therefore they attained a rather prestigious image. This in turn further aided their rapid dispersal. The arrival of the 1st fleet in 1788 saw the introduction of the rabbit in Australia. However, it was Tasmania that had the first recording of a feral rabbit population in 1827. Mainland Australia remained rabbit free until 1859, when a grazier and sportsman arranged for the shipment of twenty-four rabbits from England. Thomas Austin released the rabbits on his property in Geelong, Victoria around Christmas of 1859. Ten years from this initial release, 14,253 rabbits were shot for sport on this same property. This illustrates the high fertility and dispersal rates of the rabbit. By the year 1910, two-thirds of Australia was inhabited by the rabbit (Parer (1982) for Ratcliffe 1959). With a dispersal rate of approximately 70km/yr (Parer 1982), the rabbit went to colonise Queensland within 30 years and reaching Western Australia within 40 years of its release. Stodart and Parer suggest that it has the fastest dispersal rate of any colonising mammal in the world. The introduction of the rabbit had an enormous impact on the native wildlife, displacing many small-medium sized native mammals; the greater Bilby, Bettongia Leseur are but a few. The displaced was largely due to competition for food and the altering of their ecosystems. With the enormity of their population, widespread impacts were inevitable: depletion of native vegetation, competition for space, resulting warrens and burrows of native animals being overtaken by the rabbit. Predators such as foxes increased in numbers as a direct result of the high number of rabbits to prey on. Unfortunately when the rabbit numbers declined due to drought, etc the foxes would turn on the small native mammals. The economic implications were also enormous; Sloane etal (1988) puts the impact at approximately $90 million in lost production and a further $20 million on the control. The European rabbit has an extremely high fertility rate together with a relatively short gestation period of approximately 30 days. They are able to fall pregnant immediately after giving birth. Their litter size fluctuates between four to seven kittens. Although small at birth, weighing about thirty-five grams they are able to increase their birth weight by a staggering 600% by the time they are ready to leave the warren, generally at about 21 days of age. They will be capable of breeding when they reach an age of 3-4 months (Parer 1977). The prolificacy of their breeding season is regulated by rainfall and hence the availability of food. When the rainfall is in short supply or during the occurrence of a drought, the breeding season will be short, litter sizes will be smaller and fewer females will breed (Twigg et al 1998). The warren provides the newly born and the young kittens with shelter from the harsh elements and protection from predators. This is especially so in the open, cleared grazing land where there is little, if any, shelter or protection provided by natural vegetation (Parer 1997). Linton (2001) supports this by stating that the rabbit lowers it chances of survival outside the warren and that the warren is the centre of the rabbit’s life. This therefore seems to suggest that the destruction of the warren would facilitate in the long term eradication of the rabbit. â€Å"Rabbit control is the (artificial) imposition of mortality. It is generally assumed that, under normal circumstances, 100% mortality as a result of control is unlikely† (Wheeler and King 1985:224). They continue by suggesting that since complete eradication is not possible, one needs to ascertain when the best time of impact would be. The best time would seem to be when the rabbit is in its’ most vulnerable state, i.e. when it is a kitten. Wheeler and King (1985) argue that by targeting the young kittens, resources are increased for those that survive and for the litters born later in that year. They suggest that targeting the adults just at the commencement of their breeding season would impact more on the actual population size. That is, there would be a reduction in the total number of kittens or litters born during that breeding season. Linton (2001) argues that the greatest influence on the control of the rabbit is the actual rabbit habitat itself. That is a habitat which has a high rabbit population will always be highly susceptible to re-establishment. Linton (2001) continues by suggesting that a control program which concentrates on those components of the habitat that make it susceptible to rabbit infestation, would then greatly reduce re-establishment of the rabbit. Twigg etal (1998) suggest that the rabbit problem needs to be addressed on a regional basis, not as an Australian wide problem, even though it is. Parer (1982) supports this but, suggests that in it infancy a control program aimed at isolated populations would be more beneficial. Parer puts this down to the reduced invasion by immigrants due to its location and therefore the reduced population would be kept at low densities by resident fa cultative predators. It would seem that the complete eradication of the rabbit in Australia is insurmountable due to the enormity of our country and its’ varied landscape. However with a management plan the targets individual regions, a reduction in the population density of the rabbit is achievable. This would involve a combination of control methods which would incorporate environmental, biological, economic factors (Linton 2001, Twigg etal 1998.Parer 1982). The biological controls still have an effect on the rabbit, so this together with mechanical controls and timing would beneficial to the overall problem. Mechanical controls such as warren ripping is an important element in the long term plan and the commencement of this should be when the rabbit population is low (Linton 2001). Therefore the likelihood of re-colonisation is reduced. Follow up procedures of fumigation; poisoning might be necessary to ensure that the population has been eradicated from within that area. The timing of these methods seems to play an intricate role in the rabbits’ demise. Perhaps with time and proper management the eradication of the rabbit is feasible, but not without the financial support and backing of both regional and commonwealth governments. The key seems to be to start on a small scale and work up to larger regional control or eradication. How to cite Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Mayan Essay Example For Students

Mayan Essay Architecture and Burials in the Maya and Aztec Plundering and carnage were the overlying results of the Spanish conquest of MesoAmerica beginning in 1519. The ensuing years brought many new visitors, mostly laymen or officials in search of wealth, though the Christianity toting priest was ever present. Occasionally a man from any of these classes, though mainly priests would be so in awe of the civilization they were single handedly massacring that they began to observe and document things such as everyday life, religious rituals, economic goings on, and architecture, which was the biggest achievement in the eyes of the Spaniards. That is how the accounts of Friar Diego de Landa, a priest, were created, giving us rare first per-son historical accounts of the conquest and the people it effected. To archaeologists monumental architecture is more important than an inscribed stelae listing names and dates. There is so much more to learn from a building than a slab of stone usually seethi ng with propaganda. In most societies they are what remains after conquest, usually for their beauty or ability to withstand the elements. Landa was amazed by what he found. There are in Yucatan many edifices of great beauty, this be-ing the most outstanding of all things discovered in the Indies; they are all build of stone finely ornamented†¦ (Landa, 8). If it were a commoners domestic dwelling we would learn through the study of remaining artifacts and middens what objects were used on a daily basis and also the standard of living, helping us to construct an accurate view of the long neglected commoner. According to Landa steepled roofs covered with thatch or palm leaves protected the habitat from rain. Homes were often divided into two sections, a living section, customarily whitewashed, and a domestic area where food was prepared and inhabitants slept (Landa, 32). In Aztec societies commoners often lived in calpolli, a residential area segregated by occupation, usually sur rounded by walls for protection (Smith, 145). If it were a domestic dwelling for a noble it would be larger than a com-moners dwelling, and usually consisted of more than one large structures occasionally located on a platform near the center of the town. The high status is obvious by the in-clusion of more elaborate and ornamental objects and frequently frescos adorned the walls. Monumental Architecture of public and private buildings are one of the best indi-cators of the size and importance of a site. The size of the structure has direct corrolation to the power held by the leader, in his ability to conduct peasants to construct the build-ing. Temples and plazas were the main objects of monumental construction and often rival the pyramids of Egypt in quality and size. Temples were often pyramid like struc-tures that were built, facing east, over the cremated remains of a priest or ruler. With each acceding ruler the temple was made larger by building over the previous, thus the l ayering effect so often uncovered. Different styles of decoration and construction were used by each culture during different periods. In contrast to earlier Mesoamerican pyramids with a single temple built on top and a single stairway up the side, the pyramids built by the Early Aztec peoples had twin temples and double stairways (Smith, 43). There are several complexes of Esperanza architecture at Kaminaljuyu†¦these are stepped temple platforms with the typical Teotihuacan talud-tablero motif†¦ (Coe, 84). Then in less than three hundred years there was a completely different style of architec-ture in the area, Characteristic of Puuk buildings are facings of very thin squares of limestone veneer over the cement-and-rubble core; boot-shaped vault stones†¦and the exuberant use of stone mosaics on upper facades, emphasizing the usual monster-masks with long, hook-shaped snouts, as well as frets and lattice-like designs of criss-crossed elements (Coe, 157). Mesoamerican architecture has withstood the test of time, many of the structures not destroyed during the conquest still stand today, whereas numerous Spanish buildings do not. In pre-modern history, throughout the world burials have been customarily simi-lar, irregardless the distance. Whether this is coincidence or not will be determined at some point in the future, but for now I am of the opinion that since many cultures wor-shipped similar gods many of their customs will be comparable. For example many cul-tures, including the Aztecs and the Maya buried bodies in the fetal position facing east. More often than not various foods and goods were placed in the grave to accompany the deceased in the next life. Burials usually followed some ritual and occurred near the home, which would be abandoned soon after (Landa, 57). If they were not cremated the body would be wrapped in a shroud and buried in the temple (Coe, 76). It is believed that many Aztec adults, though commoners, were cremated, mainl y because of the lack of adult burials found (Smith, 142). Nobles and priests were cremated and placed in an urn or hollow statue and if the person was of great importance they would be buried in a tem-ple or have a temple erected over their burial site. Foreign lords of the Esperanza phase chose the temple platforms themselves as their final resting-places. As with the earlier Miraflores people, each platform was actually built to enclose the rulers tomb, a log-roofed chamber usually placed beneath the frontal staircase, successive burials and their platforms being placed over older ones†¦Surrounding him were rich funerary vessels, undoubtedly containing food and drink for his own use†¦ (Coe, 84-85). Unlike the Maya who believed that everyone went to Xibalba, the cold Maya un-derworld, the Aztec believed there were several underworlds depending on the method of death. Soldiers who died in battle and sacrificial victims went to an eastern solar realm†¦women who died i n childbirth went to a western solar realm†¦people who died by drowning or other causes related to the rain god went to the earthly paradise of Tlalo-can. Most people, however went to one of the nine levels of Mictlan, the underground realm of death (Smith, 141-142). Funerals of Aztec nobles were often attended by peo-ple of importance throughout the empire, usually bringing jewels or other gifts such as slaves. Although a Spaniard, Landa was one of the most important historians of his time in regards to Mesoamerica. His accounts may be less than scientific and a bit biased to-wards his own culture but at the same time show an awe of the primitive societies they were attempting to civilize in the name of Christ. He was ignorant and therefore in my mind is not to be blamed much, at least he tried to preserve information on their culture, though he did burn most manuscripts written by the natives. Bibliography:Bibliography Works Cited Landa, Diego de. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. Dover Publications Inc. New York City, New York, 1978. Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford, UK, 1996. Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Thames and Hudson Ltd. London, 1999. Works Cited Landa, Diego de. Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. Dover Publications Inc. New York City, New York, 1978. Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford, UK, 1996. Coe, Michael D. The Maya. Thames and Hudson Ltd. London, 1999. .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .postImageUrl , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:hover , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:visited , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:active { border:0!important; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:active , .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub41a8b898d23dc5fab1fc3f06426106f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: When dealing with a subject as touchy as choosing Essay We will write a custom essay on Mayan specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Negotiation Analysis Paper

Introduction Over the past two decades, there has been a rise in the number of issues facing firms in different economic sectors. According to Gitman and McDaniel (2008, p.34), changes in the external and internal business environments affect the ability of businesses to achieve their objectives.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Negotiation Analysis Paper – Verizon Wireless specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human resource managers face diverse challenges in an effort to deal with changes emanating from the external business environments. This arises from the fact that they do not have control over external business environment. However, human resource managers can be able to control issues emanating from the internal business environment. Firms’ management teams attain this through formulation and implementation of effective human resource management practices. Some of the human resource manageme nt practices that organizations implement relate to development of an environment conducive for working. There are numerous ways through which an organization can attain this. One of these ways entails ensuring fair compensation to the employees. According to Durai (n.d, p.538), organizations must avoid any form unfair labor practices. Examples of such practices include unfair dismissals of labor union members and unfair employees’ disciplinary actions. Additionally, organizations management teams should not also undermine the employees’ collective bargaining rights. There has been an increment in the number of labor disputes that organizations experience over the past few decades. Considering the fact that human capital is one of the most important organizational assets, it is paramount for management teams to ensure that disputes are effectively resolved. One of the ways through which organizations can achieve this is through negotiation. Spoelstra and Pienaar (1999, p.3) define negotiation as the process through which different parties interact with the objective of reaching an agreement or resolving a conflict. Lewicki, Saunders and Minton (1999), assert that there are different strategies that organizations can use to resolve conflicts. Lewicki, Saunders and Minton (1999) further assert that conflicts within can be beneficial if they are resolved effectively.Advertising Looking for term paper on labor law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Spoelstra and Pienaar (1999, p.3) assert that negotiation entails exchange of information. There are four main characteristics of negotiation. These include a common interest, conflicting interest, compromise and a common standard for the agreement to hold. In an effort to develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept of negotiation as a human resource management strategy, the researcher considered evaluating the concept with regard to its appli cation by Verizon Wireless. Current issue at Verizon Wireless Company Verizon Wireless is one of the largest telecommunication companies in the United States. The firm is the leader in provision of wireless services. Currently, Verizon Wireless is facing a labor dispute. Approximately 45,000 of the firm’s employees who work at the firm’s wire lines division who are represented by the union are considering striking. Some of the unions that represent the firm’s employees include International Brotherhood Electrical Workers (IBEW) and Communications Workers of America (CWA). One of the issues that these unions are advocating for relate to an increment in the hourly wages. Additionally, the unions are also advocating for the betterment of Verizon Wireless employee’s pension and health care benefits. Over the past few years, Verizon Wireless has experienced a significant growth in its performance with regard to profitability. For example, over the past four ye ars, Verizon Wireless profit has increased to $19.1 billion. As a result, the firm has continuously increased the financial benefits received by the firm’s top executives in terms of annual salary increments and bonuses. Employees within the lower employment levels in Verizon Wireless are not treated the same with the top level employees despite the fact that the fact that they are the ones who undertake most of the operational tasks that contributes to the firm’s profitability. Durai (n.d, p. 538) asserts that organizations should ensure that the unionized employees receive fair salaries and wage increment and other career development opportunities. However, Verizon Wireless remuneration to lower level employees has not been fair. Additionally, Verizon Wireless fires employees unfairly (Campbell, 2011, para. 5). For example, Verizon Wireless fires employees who join the workers union. The firm also conducts captive audience meetings in an effort to discourage employee s from joining the employees union.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Negotiation Analysis Paper – Verizon Wireless specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In an effort to diminish the powers of the employees unions, Verizon Wireless is considering influencing employees who are not union members to remain un-unionized. To achieve this, Verizon Wireless is discouraging its employees from signing Union Cards. According to Durai (n.d, p.538), organization management teams should not engage in unfair staffing process in an effort to discourage its employees from becoming members of the employees union. Additionally, organization’s management teams should also avoid preventing its employees from forming an employee union unfairly. However, in the case of Verizon Wireless Company, it is the firm’s objective to destroy the union. The poor payment to the firm’s employees has made their living sta ndards to deteriorate. This indicates a high level of unfair treatment to the employees. Negotiation processes Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.15) asserts that the process of negotiation is made up of four main sub-processes which include distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining, intra-organizational bargaining and attitudinal structuring. Distributive bargaining tactic According to Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.15), distributive bargaining entails a negotiation strategy whereby the parties involved are in a conflict. The initial stage of the negotiation process is characterized by a gap between the conflicting parties. Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.16) further assert that the bargainers have a particular target and resistance point in their mind. These points affect their offers and counteroffers. The target point represents the most-favorable goal for each stakeholder. On the other hand, the resistant point depicts the least desirable outcome. According to Lewicki, Saunders and Minton (1999), distributive bargaining as a negotiation process is most appropriate when one of the negotiators’ interests is expressly opposed. During the bargaining process, the parties involved struggle to establish a compromise. According to Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.16), existence of a huge gap between the two points leads into an impasse.Advertising Looking for term paper on labor law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This impasse is likely to be manifested by a strike during the negotiations. For example, in the case of Verizon Wireless, the strike by the firm’s employees is an indication of an existing gap between the employees’ labor demands and the firm’s top executive desire. During the negotiations, the union representatives pulled out of the negotiations since the firm’s management team was not willing to give the employees their desires despite making it known to the management team. According to the union representatives, the firm’s management took a hard-line position hence limiting the effectiveness of the bargaining process. The union representatives further said that the Verizon Wireless was willing to disregard the collective bargaining process which had been established within the firm for over fifty years. In such a situation, the union members should consider integrating distributive bargaining. According to the firm’s management team, Ve rizon Wireless have established a contingency plan whose objective is to ensure minimal disruption in the firm’s operation by the strike. The plan entails training a sufficient number of retirees and management employees who will take the positions of the union workers who go on strike. This indicates a high level of disregard of the employee’s rights. Instead of developing a contingency plan, Verizon Wireless and the unions’ representatives should emphasize on developing a positive contract zone. According to Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.16), establishment of a positive contract zone increases the probability of the parties reaching an agreement. Additionally, there is an increment in the level of motivation with regard to negotiation amongst the parties involved. By establishing a continuing interdependent relationship between Verizon Wireless management team and the union representatives, there is a high probability that no employee strike would occur. This mea ns that both the employees and firm would not be adversely affected since they are dependent on each other. Integrative bargaining This negotiation strategy is also referred to as cooperative negotiation. The process entails negotiating with the objective of achieving a mutual gain. According to Guasco and Robinson (2007, p.66), it is the objective of the parties involved to create a value that will be shared by the two negotiating parties. Integrative bargaining is only successful if the negotiating parties avoid exploitation during the initial stages of the negotiation. Additionally, the negotiators must accept an anti-competitive premise. One of the ways through which the negotiators can achieve this if they are negotiating for establishment of a shared gain is by developing a mutually satisfying deal. This is referred to as the win-win negotiation (Guasco Robinson, 2007, p.66). Integrative negotiation is aimed at developing a situation whereby both negotiators attain what they need. For cooperative negotiation to be successful, a high degree of patience is required. Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.18) assert that in the event of a mixed-motive situation, the negotiations must identify a trade-off that will contribute towards ensuring that the both parties are better off. In the case of Verizon Wireless, the employees were motivated to strike because of unfair treatment by the management team in a number of ways. For example, the lower level employees were poorly remunerated while the top level managers were highly remunerated. Additionally, in their negotiation with the firm’s management teams, the union representatives are also pressuring Verizon Wireless to increase their employees’ pension and health care benefits. However, Verizon Wireless is not willing to compromise on its reserved profits by increasing the employees’ financial benefits. This is despite the fact that it is the lower level employees who have worked hard to ensure that the firm remains profitable. Verizon Wireless management team should strive to ensure that the lower level employees also benefit from their hard work. Intra-organizational bargaining The objective of this strategy is to resolve internal conflicts such as the labor disputes within Verizon Wireless Company. It is aimed at establishing consensus between the employees and the management teams. Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.18) appreciate the fact that most negotiators do not act in their own individual capacity. However, they act as representatives of a particular group of individuals. Within organizations, the union representatives are the ones who are mostly involved in the negotiation process. For example, in the case of Verizon Wireless, the employees are interests are advocated by unions which include CWA and IBEW. The representatives have an obligation to report to their constituents. Due to existence of a large number of individuals, there is a high probability of conflict of inte rest as a result of diversity in their views. Therefore, there is a high probability of differences amongst the union members. Prior to the representative engaging in the negotiations, the union should reconcile internally with the members of the group so as to eliminate any differences. This means that there has to be an intra-organizational bargaining which entails undertaking negotiation within the particular teams. The resultant effect is that there is a high probability of the negotiations succeeding. Attitudinal restructuring Organization’s management teams should not only emphasize on distributive and integrative bargaining, however, they should also consider attitudinal restructuring in their negotiation process. According to Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010), the negotiators perception of each other affects the outcome of the bargaining process. The negotiators should develop strategies on how to positively influence each parties approach in an effort to attain thei r needs. The resultant effect is achievement of a mutual benefit. Attitudinal restructuring in negotiation entails developing trust between the parties. Lewicki, Saunders and Minton (1999), assert that development of trust aid in effective conduction of integrative negotiation. According to Kochan and Lipsky (2003, p.18), the negotiation process may result into development or a decline in the level of trust between the parties depending on the treatment received. The union members have developed a negative attitude towards Verizon Wireless. This is due to the unfair treatment that the firm subjects to its employees. This may have adverse effects on future relationship between the firm and its employees. Context of negotiation There are a wide range of contexts which compose the negotiation process. One of these contexts relate to relationships. Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010) assert that the relationship between the negotiators affect the outcome of the negotiation. During intern al conflicts, the parties involved must assess the effect of negotiation on the future relationship established. In order to manage negotiations, human resource managers promote positive emotions amongst the parties. Organizations should also ensure that they address the issues they are facing with justice and fairness. The negotiation process is also composed of an audience. The audience may be composed of different parties such the team or the group members. According to Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010), the audience in the negotiation puts more pressure to the negotiators to be more tough and unyielding. As a result, the negotiators usually advocate their audience’s position (Asherman Asherman, 2001, p.207). In the case of Verizon Wireless, the union representatives have an obligation to advocate for the needs of the firm’s employees. According to Asherman and Asherman (2001, p.207), there are two main rules that guide negotiators when there is an audience involv ed. The first rule relates to flexibility whereby the negotiators make proposals and compromises that may seem undesirable to the audience initially. On the other hand, a win-lose negotiation compels the negotiators to adhere to the audiences’ position which means that they should not concede so easily. In an effort to fight for their rights, Verizon Wireless employees are using CWA and IBEW to negotiate with the management. Additionally, the employees should also consider incorporating agents in their negotiation process. The agent is required to act in accordance with the needs of the audience. In the event that the agent makes a concession that is not desirable, the principal can withdraw. Asherman and Asherman (2001, p.207) asserts that using agents in the negotiation process can be advantageous since they are not intensely involved psychologically in the negotiation. In addition, the probability of emotions interfering with the negotiation process is limited since the ag ents do not have their ego at stake. On the other hand, multiparty negotiation, entails a large number of parties whereby each party is either concerned with achieving their own ends or a group consensus. Multiparty negotiations are also characterized by formation of coalitions. The coalitions contribute towards the strengthening of the weaker parties thus enabling them to push for their needs and to block any unacceptable decisions (Harvard Business School Press, 2005, p.59). According to Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010), assert that coalitions may be dissolved during the negotiation process. There are two main forms of coalitions in multiparty negotiation. These include natural coalition and a single-issue coalition. Natural coalition is characterized by one or more allies who have a wide range of universal interests. For example, in negotiating for their rights, Verizon Wireless employees are represented by two parties which include IBEW and CWA. The objective of the two labor unions is to fight for the employees rights within the telecommunication industry. On the other hand, a single-issue coalition is composed of two of more parties whose interests differ but unite on others. Negotiation and culture Culture has a significant effect on the outcome of the negotiation process. According to Brett (2007, p.280), cultural differences exist in the negotiation process. This is due to the fact that the principals and the representatives have different priorities, interests and positions. These positions are influenced by different factors which emanate from social, economic, and political contexts. Additionally, the negotiators have diverse motives which include individualistic, competitive and cooperative motives. The parties involved in the negotiation process in the case of Verizon Wireless should have a comprehensive understanding of the existing cultural differences. This will play a vital role in ensuring that the negotiation is successful. For example, i n a collectivist culture, negotiators tend to avoid any form of direct conflict or its manifestation. For example, when Japanese is negotiating with an American and he or she is not comfortable with proposal; the Japanese may say that he will look further into the issue. This may be a tactic of saying no which the American does not understand (Trevino Nelson, 2011, p. 406).On raising the issue later, the Japanese may be direct and say no. This may make the American to perceive the negotiation process as being unfair. When resolving conflicts, understanding the culture is also critical since it aids in determining the most effective conflict resolution strategy to use. For example, some cultures prefer mediation as the best method of conflict resolution. Negotiation and gender Numerous studies have been conducted to establish the relationship between gender and negotiation. These studies were aimed at establishing whether various demographic characteristics such as age and race affe ct the outcome of the negotiation process. This is due to the fact that negotiation is an interpersonal process. According to Moffitt and Bordone (2005, p.136), gender as an individual attribute plays a vital role in the negotiation process. Moffitt and Bordone (2005, p.136) assert that women are more sensitive and tend to nurture a long term relationship. Therefore, women involved in a negotiation process are more likely to consider the negotiation process as a long term relationship. As a result, they are likely to be more concerned with ensuring that the process is fair. On the other hand, men are more individualistic. In addition, they regard the negotiation process to be a one time event which does not have any direct consequences with regard to future interactions. Moffitt and Bordone (2005, p.137) are of the opinion that women are less aggressive in that they do not feel that they are entitled to receive the same salary as their male counterparts. Findings by researchers reve al that women are likely to accept relatively low salaries. They also feel less confident in the negotiation process. On the other hand, men are more offensive which makes them to succeed in the negotiation process. However, when women are negotiating for others as agents, they tend t o be more effective compared to when they are negotiating for their own demands. In order to reach a consensus with Verizon Wireless management team, the labor union should ensure that both genders are considered in the selection of negotiators. Individual differences; personality and abilities According to Griffin and Moorhead (2009, p. 395), personality traits such as authoritarianism, self-esteem, Machiavellianism, tolerance to ambiguity, risk taking, and locus on control affect the negotiation process. Griffin and Moorhead (2009, p.395) assert that the two parties involved in a dispute should ensure that they select the right negotiators. The success of Verizon Wireless employees in negotiating for their rights is dependent on the effectiveness of selecting negotiators from the union to represent the members. Griffin and Moorhead (2009, p.395) asserts that the selection of a negotiator with the right personality is critical factor in the negotiation process. This arises from the fact that the negotiation process is both personal and interactive. Managing negotiation difficulties According to Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010), there is a high probability of negotiations failing due to different reasons. In the case of Verizon Wireless, the negotiations stalled as a result of the firm’s management team failure to change its initial proposal regarding the employees’ demands to have a fair employment contract. This motivated the firm’s employees to resort to strike as an alternative to address their concerns. Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (2010) assert that integrative bargaining may fail in the event of the negotiators failing to establish a mutually benefici al option. Additionally, negotiations may also fail if one of the parties to the conflict has adopted an integrative negotiation strategy while the other party has adopted a distributive strategy. Failed negotiations can result into the parties involved incurring significant cost. In order for the negotiation process to be successful, the parties must develop effective strategies aimed at ensuring that an impasse does not occur. One of the ways through which they can achieve this is by ensuring that there is effective communication amongst the negotiators. In the case of Verizon Wireless, it is important for the firm’s management team and the union representatives to ensure that there is effective communication between the parties. The strike by Verizon Wireless employees may affect the firm’s profitability. As a result, it is vital for the firm’s management team to incorporate enticing offers. In addition, the negotiators should strive towards developing a comm on ground. To manage negotiation difficulties, the parties involved must undertake effective preparations prior to the negotiation. Conclusion The analysis illustrates the importance of negotiations in resolving conflicts within organizations. In its operation, Verizon Wireless Company is experiencing an internal conflict between its employees and the management team. The current dispute between the management team of Verizon Wireless and its employees relates to labor issues. The employees union is advocating for better employment terms which the management team is not willing to offer. In order to resolve this labor dispute through negotiation, there are different negotiation processes that negotiators can adopt. However, the choice of the negotiation process to adopt is dependent on the existing situation. Some of the negotiation processes to consider include distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining, intra-organizational bargaining and attitudinal restructuring. Additional ly, the research also evaluates the diverse contexts which compose the negotiation process. These contexts include the various relationships in the negotiation, agents, audiences, coalitions, and constituents. Additionally, the negotiation process may be composed of multiple parties. During the negotiation process, the negotiators must also have a comprehensive understanding of the existing cultural differences. Other factors that the negotiators must consider relate to gender, individual differences and abilities. This is due to the fact that these factors influence the outcome of the negotiation. The research has also appreciated the fact that there are a number of difficulties that can affect the success of the negotiation process. Therefore, to ensure that negotiations do not fail, effective strategies should be implemented. Some of these strategies relate to ensuring effective communication, establishing a common ground and effective planning. Reference List Asherman, I. Asher man, S. (2001). The negotiation sourcebook. Amherst, Mass: HRD Press. Brett, J. (2007). Negotiation globally; how to negotiate deals, resolve disputes and  made decisions across cultural boundaries. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Campbell, T. (2011). CWA/ IBEW Verizon strike is more than just a labor dispute;  unions draw a line in the sand; make stand for all working people. Web. Durai, E. (n.d). Human resource management. Sydney: Pearson Education India. Gitman, L. McDaniel, C. (2008). Future of business; the essentials. New York: Cengage. Griffin, R. Moorhead, G. (2009). Organizational behavior; managing people and  organisations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Guasco, M. Robinson, P. (2007). Principles of negotiation; strategies, tactics,  techniques to reach agreements. New York: Entrepreneurship. Harvard Business Press. (2005). The essentials of negotiation. Boston: Harvard Busines School Press. Kochan, T. Lipsky, D. (2003). Negotiations and change; from the workpla ce to  society. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press. Lewicki, R., Saunders, D. Barry, B. (2010). Negotiation. Ohio: Ohio State University. Lewicki, R., Saunders, D. Minton, J. (1999). Negotiation. Boston: Irwin McGraw- Hill. Moffitt, M. Bordone, R. (2005). Handbook of dispute resolution. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Spoelstra, H. Pienaar, D. (1999). Negotiation; theories, strategies and skills. Kenwyn: Juta. Trevino, L. Nelson, K. (2011). Managing business ethics; straight talk about how to  do it right. New York: John Wiley. This term paper on Negotiation Analysis Paper – Verizon Wireless was written and submitted by user Javion E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Student Financial Aid Professor Ramos Blog

Student Financial Aid I would like to acknowledge an issue numerous of students experience with financial aid. There have been countless issues involving lack of financial aid for college students. Even though many schools do provide financial aid to students at their institute, not all of them qualify. â€Å"Over the past decade, the price index for college tuition grew by nearly 80%, a rate nearly twice as fast as the overall consumer price index during the same period† (Godek et al 255). Colleges and Universities should offer their students with multiple forms of financial aid. There should be alternatives available for students who do not qualify. An article written by James Day recognizes some of the struggles that colleges are facing with financial aid. Day provides four in depth strategies that suggest how schools should spend their funds to help their institute. This information can allow the readers to understand that there has been thoughts put into wanting success for both the schools and students. James Day is suggesting to keep using their method of leveraging, but to take advantage of it by providing aid for students so that the institute will benefit from it as well (Day). It’s basically a win-win situation that would be going on here. The students will benefit from this type of strategy because they will be receiving financial aid, as well as helping the school with student enrollment on their campus. The information in an article â€Å"Playing the Numbers HARD CHOICES† is set from 2003 to 2008, reviewing students’ tuition based on their income and how much financial aid they receive. It shows that higher level of education that students pursue, the less quantity of money will be provided to pay for their tuition and fees. The author discusses the amount of financial aid students receive based on the type of school those students are attending and the types of degrees they choose (Doyle 51). Also, William Doyle mentions that the students who attend four year institutes receive a smaller coverage amount from financial aid than the two year institutes. There are chart shown to allow the readers to see that the cost for schools rise as their education level does (Doyle 53). This given information is perfect to support the students’ point of view when they apply for financial aid. It can also bring up opposing view like on how schools need to carefully choose what necessary requirements are needed for students to be eligible for financial aid. As a student who could not receive any form of aid when I first applied to a two year college, the article by Timothy Hulsey helped me understand some of the reasons why I may have not been able to get any assistance. In his article, Hulsey goes over some of the complications that public institutes in the United States are experiencing from 2000 to 2010. Some of the issues are because of the decreasing tax revenues which force institutes to reduce their spending on higher education (Hulsey). The only source they have left that is reliable for funding their school is by increasing the tuition, leading to more issues on student loans. Mullin’s article covers information about eligibility for financial aid and how changes have been made. Also providing a chart to have a better understanding about all tuitions and fees involved and how much is covered from aid programs (Mullin 119). There is a figure provided in Mullin’s article showing how tuitions, fees, books, and supplies relative to the maximum grant amount in 2011 to 2012. The chart demonstrates comparisons from public institutes, private institutes, and profit schools. Most of the schools do not cover all of the tuitions except for public two year colleges, but that is if they to receive the maximum amount of financial aid. This chart gives a great visual on how much aid programs will actually cover for school expenses. This is one of the reasons why there should be more alternatives for financial aid for college students. Some students may not be able to afford their education independently and might not get to pursue a higher education. To sum up, colleges should keep in mind that if students are not eligible for financial aid it can potentially decrease their student enrollment. If students stop enrolling it can affect their school or campus. College tuition increases frequently and based on students income their financial aid may not even cover half of their fees. It should be mad aware that student financial aid is a problem that is still occurring today and that schools should acknowledge these issues to find an alternative way to help their students pursue their higher education. Works Cited Day, James. â€Å"The Future of Financial Aid Leveraging.†New Directions for Student Services, vol. 2007, no. 118, Summer 2007, pp. 31–38.EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/ss.238. Doyle, WilliamR. â€Å"Playing the Numbers HARD CHOICES.†Change, vol. 41, no. 6, Nov. 2009, pp. 50–54.EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00091380903316954. Godek, John, et al. â€Å"The Effect of Tuition Increases on Business Student Decisions.†Journal of Education for Business, vol. 90, no. 5, July 2015, pp. 255–259.EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/08832323.2015.1034066. Hulsey, Timothy L. â€Å"The Cost of, and to, Public Higher Education.†Phi Kappa Phi Forum, vol. 90, no. 1, spring 2010, p. 24.EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=a9hAN=48736481site=ehost-live. Mullin, Christopher M. â€Å"Evolving Practices and Emerging Innovations in Community College Finance.†New Directions for Community Colleges, vol. 2014, no. 168, Winter 2014, pp. 115–125.EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/cc.20125.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Art history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Art history - Essay Example According to Hamilton, Richard Foster and Martin (35), pop art became so dominant and popular in London and New York in the mid 50s, the same time Richard made this painting. Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait (Northern Renaissance) on the other hand, is a proof of the coming and birth of contemporary fashion as suggested by the woman in the portrait who is holding high her brightly colored dress. â€Å"The Arnolfini is filled with complex symbolism and interesting details,† (Seidel and Linda 21). Evidently, Jan’s painting is a Flemish painting from the bright colors used as it is commonly associated with the renaissance, which usually means re-birth. Re-birth was started in Florence and Italy, the same place where the particular painting is based on. The painting was done in 1434 by Jan van Eyck as one of the pioneers of oil painting. In Italy there are a lot of details of wealth from the same place like the rare species of the dog present in the painting, the wealthy clothes and the gleaming brass chandelier on the wall. The ornate Latin signature on the wall near the clock also has some resemblance of the modern day graffiti, which proves more of the birth of contemporary culture. There are several differences between Richard’s painting, â€Å"just what is it that makes today’s homes so appealing?† and Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait in that, Richards painting is a true depiction of modern pop art with modern true day to day life among people like the free and liberal partnership between man and woman as depicted in the picture .Richard’s painting also narrows down the difference between fine and contemporary art while Jan’s painting depicts marriage, fidelity ,and wealth of the fourteenth century as mentioned by Bedaux and Ben( 43) These paintings are similar in style, in that they are bold, colorful interesting to look at and catchy. However, Richard’s